Vocabulary Unit 3

UN-        Not

Unqualified (adj) – Absolute or complete

Synonyms:  thorough, total
Antonyms: partial
Helpful Hints: Yes, of course, this word can also mean “Not Qualified” or “Not Able”. But in this case, remember that to qualify a statement means to make an excuse about it or to weaken it.
Sample Sentence: The operation was an unqualified success, with the patient feeling no adverse side effects.

Uncanny (adj) — Beyond the ordinary or normal, often in a way that causes fear or discomfort

Synonyms: supernatural, weird
Antonyms: normal, ordinary
Helpful Hint: This word doesn’t always carry a negative connotation, like if you were rolling dice and rolled doubles eight times in a rowif you were rolling dice, and got doubles eight times in a row. But this word does commonly suggest something that makes you slightly uneasy – it’s uncanny how much some robot look like a human, or if you were traveling in Europe and ran into the same random person in every city you visited.
Sample Sentence: Clara has an uncanny ability to call my cell phone at the absolute worst time.

AMBI-     Both

Ambiguous (adj) – 1. Open to having several different meanings or interpretations  2. Lacking clearness or definiteness; obscure; indistinct; vague

Synonyms:  unclear, obscure
Antonyms:  clear, unequivocal
Helpful Hints:  An ambidextrous person can use BOTH left and right hands equally well.
Sample Sentence: When I asked for feedback, my cousin was pretty ambiguous, and I couldn’t tell whether or not she liked my performance.

Ambivalent (adj) – Having “mixed feelings” about someone or something; being unable to choose between two (usually opposing) courses of action

Synonyms:  contradictory, doubtful, hesitant
Antonyms:  certain, definite
Sample Sentence: When given the option of traveling to San Diego or Seattle, Mary was pretty ambivalent, as she really wanted to visit both places equally.

AUTO-     Self

Automate (v) – To make a process mechanical or mindless

Helpful Hints:  Self-operating machines, such as an ATM (automatic teller machine), enable one to perform bank transactions without the need for a bank teller.
Sample Sentence: Some grocery stores have automated the payment process, allowing customers to insert bills and coins into a machine instead of handing it to a cashier.

Autonomy (n) – 1. Independence or freedom in one’s actions  2. Self-government; political independence

Synonyms: self-rule
Antonyms:  dependence
Sample Sentence: The college freshman was overwhelmed by his new autonomy, and he secretly wished he still had to live under his parents’ rules.

CONTRA- / COUNTER-     Against

Contradict (v) – 1. To assert the opposite of; to deny  2. To speak contrary to the assertions of another (or of oneself)

Synonyms:  dispute, differ
Antonyms:  accept, agree
Sample Sentence: One of Emma’s more annoying characteristics is her tendency to contradict whatever I say, no matter what the topic of discussion is.

Counterfeit (adj) – Fake; made to fraudulently resemble something valuable

Synonyms:  false, phony, forged
Antonym: genuine, authentic
Sample Sentence: Bert was disappointed to discover that the prized Renoir painting that he had inherited from his mother was in fact a counterfeit and entirely worthless.

-TY / -ITY     Quality of Being

Hilarity (n) – Great humorousness; cheerfulness; merriment

Synonyms:  amusement, mirth
Antonyms: sadness, depression, gloom

Helpful Hints:  Hilarious (adj) entertainment, such as comedians or funny TV shows, make us laugh.
Sample Sentence: The commercials for the movie made it look like two hours of nonstop hilarity, but in reality, it was pretty lame.

Tenacity (n) – 1. The quality of holding fast; characterized by keeping a firm hold  2. Firmness of purpose; persistence

Synonyms:  determination, perseverance, stubbornness, obstinacy
Helpful Hints: For the first definition, think of a “firm hold” on a belief or a course of action, not a firm hold on an item. A small child in a tug-of-war would have tenacity if he refused to quit, but NOT because he’s gripping the rope really well.
Sample Sentence: The talented senior thought her position on the team was secure, but when she saw the freshman’s tenacity, she knew she had to try as hard as possible to remain the starting point guard.

SUPER-    Over, Above

Superfluous (adj) – 1. Being more than is sufficient or required; excessive  2. Unnecessary or needless

Synonyms:  extra, excess, surplus
Antonyms:  needed, necessary
Sample Sentence: Hannah began to find the gifts from her secret admirer to be superfluous—how many bouquets of flowers could she possibly receive in a single week?

Supercilious (adj) — acting as though you think you are better than others, arrogant

Synonyms: condescending, patronizing, snooty
Helpful Hint: OK, so “super” means above, and in Latin, “cilium” means your eyelid, so one way you can remember this word is that when you are arrogantly dismissing someone, your eyebrows – the part ABOVE the CILIUM – goes up, or becomes part of your expression.
Sample Sentence: Doug asked if he could be a part of the team, but the supercilious looks he got from the team gave him their response before their words did.

TRANS-     Across

Transcend (v) – 1. To rise above or go beyond; exceed  2. To outdo or exceed in excellence, elevation, extent, degree, etc.

Synonyms: outdo, outshine, excel, surpass
Sample Sentence: Natalia’s essays were always superior, but her insightful paper on Othello transcended even her teacher’s lofty expectations and received an A+.

Transitory (adj) – Lasting only a short time; brief

Synonyms: short-lived, temporary, transient, ephemeral
Antonyms:  long-lasting, endless, permanent, enduring 
Helpful Hints: Perhaps you will remember that a person who is “in transit” is passing between two places, and is not settling in permanently
Sample Sentence: After the house fire, the family had to set up their transitory residence in a hotel for three weeks.

PRO-     Forward

Propensity (n) — a natural tendency or inclination

Synonyms: leaning, disposition
Antonyms: aversion

Sample Sentence: Despite the mathematical odds being exactly 50/50, Sofia has a strong propensity to call “tails” whenever there’s a coin toss. 

Profound (adj) – Of deep meaning; going beyond what is superficial and obvious

Synonyms:  deep, insightful
Antonyms:  shallow, superficial
Sample Sentence: Sometimes it is fun to read a book that doesn’t make you think too hard, but it can be equally enjoyable to read something profound that changes the way you see the world.

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